What is the ARMOR Study?

People with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or solid organ transplant recipients are often treated with immunosuppressive medications that prevent the immune system from attacking healthy cells and tissue by mistake. Healthcare providers prescribe immunosuppressants to treat IBD or prevent organ transplant rejection. Taking these medications can increase your chance of getting infections that affect your lungs, such as COVID-19. The original COVID-19 vaccine trials did not include people taking immunosuppressive medicines, which means we do not have as much information about how well the COVID-19 vaccines work, including boosters, in people with IBD or solid organ transplant recipients.


The ARMOR study plans to follow 120 volunteers over 7 months to study how well the Novavax COVID-19 booster vaccine works in adults with IBD and people who have had a solid organ transplant.

Learn more about the ARMOR study at clinicaltrials.gov.


For more information about the Novavax vaccine, visit the CDC’s Overview of COVID-19 Vaccines.

Meet the Researchers


Freddy Caldera, DO, MS, is an associate professor in the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health. He is a gastroenterologist and hepatologist at UW Health and treats patients with gastrointestinal (GI) tract disease. These digestive system disorders include stomach ulcers and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Dr. Caldera’s research interests include evaluating the risk of vaccine-preventable illness and the response to vaccines in immunosuppressed patients with IBD.


Mary Hayney, R.Ph, Pharm.D., MPH, BCPS,  is a professor at the University of Wisconsin’s School of Pharmacy. Her research interests include responses to vaccines and protective effects in immunosuppressed individuals. Dr. Hayney’s clinical practice is with the lung transplant group at the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics. Additionally, her postdoctoral training was at the Mayo Clinic and Foundation in Clinical Pharmacology and Vaccine Research.

Learn more about Dr. Caldera’s & Dr. Hayney’s research here.